Date of Award

January 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical Engineering

First Advisor

Ryan Adams


The advancement of Fifth Generation Network (5G) technology is well underway, with Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) globally commencing the deployment of 5G networks within the mid-frequency spectrum range (3GHz–6GHz). Nevertheless, the escalating demands for data traffic are compelling MNOs to explore the high-frequency spectrum (24GHz–100GHz), which offers significantly larger bandwidth (400MHz-800 MHz) compared to the mid-frequency spectrum (3GHz–6GHz), which typically provides 50MHz-100MHz of bandwidth. However, it is crucial to note that the higher-frequency spectrum imposes substantial challenges due to exceptionally high free space propagation loss, resulting in 5G cell site coverage being limited to several hundred meters, in contrast to the several kilometers achievable with 4G. Consequently, MNOs are faced with the formidable task of accurately planning and deploying hundreds of new 5G cells to cover the same areas served by a single 4G cell.This dissertation embarks on a comprehensive exploration of Radio Frequency (RF) coverage planning for 5G networks, initially utilizing a conventional three-sector cell architecture. The coverage planning phase reveals potential challenges, including coverage gaps and poor Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR). In response to these issues, the dissertation introduces an innovative cell site architecture that embraces both nine and twelve sector cells, enhancing RF coverage through the adoption of an advanced antenna system designed with subarrays, offering adaptive beamforming and beam steering capabilities. To further enhance energy efficiency, the dissertation introduces adaptive higher-order cell-sectorization (e.g., nine sector cells and twelve sector cells). In this proposed method, all sectors within a twelve-sector cell remain active during peak hours (e.g., daytime) and are reduced to fewer sectors (e.g., nine sectors or six sectors per cell) during off-peak hours (e.g., nighttime). This dynamic adjustment is facilitated by an advanced antenna system utilizing sub-array architecture, which employs adaptive beamforming and beam steering to tailor the beamwidth and radiation angle of each active sector. Simulation results unequivocally demonstrate significant enhancements in RF coverage and SINR with the implementation of higher-order cell-sectorization. Furthermore, the proposed adaptive cell-sectorization method significantly reduces energy consumption during off-peak hours. In addition to addressing RF coverage planning, this dissertation delves into the numerous challenges associated with deploying 5G networks in the higher frequency spectrum (30GHz-300GHz). It encompasses issues such as precise cell site planning, location acquisition, propagation modeling, energy efficiency, backhauling, and more. Furthermore, the dissertation offers valuable insights into future research directions aimed at effectively surmounting these challenges and optimizing the deployment of 5G networks in the high-frequency spectrum.