Date of Award
Doctor of Education (EdD)
Counseling Psychology & Community Services
Problem: This study had three purposes: (1) to test for differences in risk-taking among all male, all female, and mixed-sex groups; (2) to test for differences in risk-taking between low acquaintance groups and high acquaintance groups; and (3) to investigate whether or not familiarity with the risk-taking instrument, the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire, affected risk-taking.
Procedure: The subjects used in this study were 144 male and female freshmen who were enrolled in Humanities 101 at the University of North Dakota in the fall semester of 1969. The subjects were randomly selected from the total male and female freshmen population who were enrolled in Humanities 101.
The instrument employed to measure risk-taking in this study was the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire.
The statistical tests utilized were: (1) two-way analysis of covariance, (2) Scheffe's test, and (3) test. The .05 level was established as the criterion for significance for all statistical tests.
Findings: The findings of this study were as follows:
1. There was a significant difference in risk-taking means among all male, all female, and mixed-sex groups.
2. A significant difference in risk-taking means was found between low and high acquaintance groups.
3. There was a significant difference in risk-taking means as a result of the interaction of sex composition of the groups and the groups' acquaintance level. Specifically, low acquaintance mixed-sex groups took significantly more risks than low acquaintance male groups, low acquaintance female groups, high acquaintance male groups, high acquaintance female groups, and high acquaintance mixed-sex groups.
4. Familiarity with the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire did not significantly influence risk-taking.
Conclusions: It was concluded that the sex composition of the groups affects the amount of shift toward risk made by the group members. Moreover, it was concluded that low acquaintance groups take greater risks than high acquaintance groups. Thus, making generalizations from the behavior of low acquaintance groups to high acquaintance groups is inappropriate .
Furthermore, the results indicate that sex and acquaintance level should be considered together when investigating risk-taking behavior in groups. Finally, it was concluded that familiarization does not influence risk-taking behavior.
Harper, Richard A., "The Effects of Sex and Levels of Acquaintance on Risk-Taking in Groups" (1970). Theses and Dissertations. 3559.