Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling Psychology & Community Services


Problem: The primary purposes of this study was to measure locus of control, psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism among alcoholic subjects who were at three different stages of recovery from alcoholism. A second purpose of this study included determining the relationship of race, sex, age, marriage status, and other identification factors to locus of control, psychoticis®, extraversion, and neuroticism in each of the three groups of recovering alcoholics. Finally, it was the purpose of this study to determine if there were significant changes on scores on locus of control, psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism among alcoholics who had undergone a twenty one day treatment program.

Procedure: The research population consisted of 427 recovering alcoholics, 242 who were in Group One and had just quit drinking, 91 who had just finished a 21 day treatment experience, and were in Group Two, and 94 who had been sober for at least six months with an active AA membership and consisted of Group Three. The total sample of 427 recovering alcoholics consisted of 98 Native females, 38 White females, 132 Native males, and 159 White males. Ages ranged from 16 years to 69 years and one third of the subjects were married.

Between May 1979 and March 1980 the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire were administered to the subjects in this study who were primarily located in rural and northern Manitoba. Of the 67 subjects who composed the pretest-posttest sample, 17 were Native females, three were White females, 28 were Native males, and 19 were White males; and of the 67 subjects, ten received treatment at Cameron Lodge, Thompson, Manitoba, 19 received treatment at St. Rose A1 Care Centre, St. Rose, and 38 received treatment at Rosaire House, the Pas, Manitoba.

The statistical tests employed in this study consisted of one way analysis of variance, t tests, and multiple regression analysis. The .05 level of significance was employed in evaluating the hypotheses.

Results and Conlusions: In this study, it was found that psychoticism was positively related to neuroticism and locus of control. Psychoticism was lower in older subjects than in younger subjects.

A negative relationship between extraversion and neuroticism, but no relationship between extraversion and age was found. Alcoholics who had just finished drinking had significantly higher neuroticism scores than alcoholics who had been sober for at least six months. Older subjects had lower neuroticism scores than younger subjects.

This study found significant differences in locus of control in the sample related to the race, sex, and age of the subjects. White males were significantly more internal in their locus of control than Native males and females. Younger subjects had a significantly higher external locus of control score than older subjects, and subjects who tended to have more treatment experiences tended to have higher external locus of control.

Results of this study indicated that there was lower psychoti- cism and neuroticism but higher extraversion and externality of locus of control for subjects who had been sober for six months than in subjects who had just quit drinking. In the pre-posttest com7parison of 67 subjects before and after alcoholism treatment, there were no significant differences found in locus of control, psychoti- cism, extraversion, or neuroticism.

Subjects who had just finished alcoholism treatment had significantly higher psychoticism and neuroticism, and significantly higher introversion than subjects with six months of sobriety. The subjects who had just completed alcoholism treatment had the highest internal locus of control of the total sample. Subjects with six months of sobriety showed significantly higher extraversion than subjects beginning or ending alcoholism treatment.

alcoholism treatment. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that levels of psychoticism and neuroticism are lower and extraversion is higher among alcoholics with extended sobriety. It was finally concluded that locus of control was not significantly related to extended sobriety.