Kajli Agrawal

Date of Award

January 2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Space Studies

First Advisor

Ronald A. Fevig


The space weather phenomenon involves the Sun, interplanetary space and the Earth. Different space weather conditions have diverse effects on the various layers of the Earth's atmosphere Technological advancements have created a situation in which human civilization is not only dependent on resources from deep inside the Earth, but also on the upper atmosphere and outer space region. Therefore, it is essential to improve the understanding of the impacts of space weather conditions on the ionosphere. This research focuses on the variation of total electron content (TEC) and the electron density within the E-region of the ionosphere, which extends from 80-150 km above the surface of the Earth, using radio occultation measurements obtained by COSMIC satellites and using Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional algorithm (IDA4D) which is used to mitigate the effects of F-region in the E-region estimation (Bust, Garner, & Gaussiran, 2004). E-region TEC and the electron density estimation for geomagnetic latitude range of 45o-80o, geomagnetic longitude range of -180o-180o and 1800-0600 MLT (magnetic local time) are presented for two active and two quiet days during winter solstice 2007. Active and quiet days are identified based on the Kp index values. Some of the important findings are (1) E-region electron peak density is higher during active days than during quiet days, and (2) during both types of days, higher density values were found at the magnetic latitude of >60o early morning MLT. Prominent E-region features (TEC and electron density) were observed during most active days over the magnetic latitude range of 60o-70o at ~02:00 MLT.