Date of Award

January 2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling Psychology & Community Services

First Advisor

David Perry


Objective: Research has demonstrated the importance of vocational rehabilitation (VR) for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who seek competitive long-term employment. Unfortunately, there has been minimal research on the provision of services provided by VR as a moderating factor, and almost non-existent research for individuals in rural regions. Research in this area is crucial given that the services are provided as a way to increase the individual's likelihood of overcoming barriers to gaining employment. Therefore, this study focused on individual's diagnosed with TBI who are clients of North Dakota's Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR) and the connection between services provided by DVR and long-term competitive employment. Method: 327 consumers of VR services who had sustained a TBI were tracked between 2007 and 2011 Federal Fiscal Year (FFY). Results: Cross tabulations revealed significant relationships between obtaining/maintaining long-term employment and consumers who participated in diagnosis and treatment services (p = .01), provision of job readiness services (p = .01), on-the-job support services (p = .02), and job placement services (p = .001). Contrary to previous research, no significant differences were found between individuals who received supportive employment and their counterparts. Conclusions: The results of this research have important implications for practitioners and patients. In general, some services may be more effective for individual's diagnosed with TBI in state VR agency settings than others. Overall, these findings provide evidence to help assist practitioners in treatment planning.