Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Teaching & Learning

First Advisor

Dr. Woei Hung, Ph.D.


Among those who teach English to English Language Learners (ELL), reading comprehension is considered an essential language skill critical for knowledge acquisition and information exchange. However, in various parts of the world, including Jordan, reading comprehension has been reported as a difficult area for ELL students to master.

The purpose of this study was to investigate in-depth the impact of the use of the reading software C-map as a cognitive tool in collaborative and individual concept mapping to promote reading comprehension among ELL readers. The independent variable of this study was concept mapping, which functioned on three levels: collaborative, individual, and control groups. There were four dependent variables: reviewing, listing, enforcing, and overall reading comprehension. 106 ELL high school students from Jordan, aged 17-18 years, participated in the study as subjects, divided into three groups: a collaborative group of 32, an individual group of 36, and a control group of 38. All groups were instructed by the same high school ELL English teacher for 10 weeks. Both the ELL English teacher and the rater received training appropriate to their responsibilities.

At the outset of the study, all ELL students took the same pretest individually. They then underwent orientation training appropriate to their groups. Over the course of the study, the students’ work was rated using the same rubric 10 times, one time per a week. At the conclusion of the study, all subjects took the same post-test individually. All instructional materials were accredited by the Jordanian Ministry of Education and the reliability and the validity of study instruments were ensured. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively using the independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results, limitations, and recommendations were discussed and interpreted in light of study’s purpose, questions, and hypotheses.