Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




The main of this study was to compare the effect of cultural affiliation on altitudes, beliefs, and reactions to the Fighting Sioux Nickname and logo issue for 60 Nonhem Plains American Indian college students and 61 non-Indian college students at the University of North Dakota. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire and the University of North Dakota Fighting Sioux Nickname Attitudes, Beliefs, and Reactions (UNDFSNABR) survey. In addition, American Indian subjects completed the Nonhem Plains Bicuhuralism Inventory (NPBI), Using the Northern Plains Biculluralisin Inventory (NPBI) to identify cultural identification among American Indian participants, the hypotheses of the current study were;: I,.I American Indian participants’ responses on the UND Fighting Sioux Nickname Attitudes., Beliefs, and Reactions survey would differ from non-Indians 2.) Participants that are more traditional (High on AICI) in cultural affiliation would endorse attitudes, beliefs, and relictions that would be against the use of the Fighting Sioux nickname, whereas more assimilated Indians (High on EACH would have altitudes, beliefs, and reactions that would be more similar to non-Indians Descriptive analyses were conducted on demographic variables and UNDFSN ABR survey items in order to examine the nature and characteristics of the sample. Pearson Product Moment (PPM) correlation analyses were also done to determine the strength and direction to which any of the NPBI su i> scales covaried and the UNDFSNABR survey items covaried, as well as their relationships with any demographic variables After analyzing the descriptive analysis of the means of the items on the UKDFSABR between American Indians and non-Indians, a series of te la id l-tests were conducted The first hypothesis was supported. Selected t~ ttttt revealed that American Indian students had significantly different attitudes, beliefs, and reactions to the use of the “Fighting Sioux** nickname and its related issues titan mon- Indians.. On average, American Indians were negative toward the nickname while non- Indians were positive toward the nickname. The second hypothesis was partially supported.. For the most part, Assimilated IndiansInstead, Assimilated American Indians tended to. view the issue similarly as Traditional American Indians Tltat i». Assimilated American Imlians tended to mildly agree and disagree with items whereas Traditional American Indians tended to strongly agree and disagree wills items Tins study revealed that American Indian students and non-Indian students; significantly differ on their attitudes, beliefs., and reactions to the "fighting Sioux'" nickname controversy, allltough this study did not reveal why these differences exist. Hopefully, this .study will contribute to the issue, provide a basis for further research in this area, and help in finding a resolution tr the issue.

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