Grace Y. Kim

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling Psychology & Community Services


Body image dissatisfaction is often seen as a predictor variable for the development of eating disorders; however, this study contends that the consequences of body dissatisfaction itself are problematic. Body image dissatisfaction of both men and women can have negative effects on psychological health and well being. This study examined the literature on body image and body image dissatisfaction, specifically emphasizing various mental health consequences as well as the influence of sex and sexual orientation. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to investigate the consequences of normative body image dissatisfaction among non-clinical adult populations, and to offer initial validation of two new scales, the Body Image Dissatisfaction Scale (BIDS) and the Consequences of Body Image Dissatisfaction Scale (CoBIDS).

Specifically this study examined the interaction between body image dissatisfaction, sex, sexual orientation, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety. The previously mentioned constructs were measured via an online survey of non-clinical male and female adults. This study looked at both the factor structure and reliability of the BIDS and CoBIDS. It was hypothesized that the BIDS and CoBIDS would provide clinicians and researchers measures that could be used with non clinical adult population to address normative body image dissatisfaction and the possible psychosocial consequences. The findings of this study support the use of two new scales that broaden the examination of the construct and possible consequences. Additionally the limited differences found based on sex and sexual orientation may point to the importance of examining body image dissatisfaction further in a non clinical population to better understand the consequences of high levels of dissatisfaction with one's body.

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