Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Chemical Engineering


Equilibrium data have been obtained for the systems Ca(N03)2- HNO3- TBP- H20 and Sc(N03)3- Ca(N03)2- HNO3- TBP- H20 over a wide range of concentration of the metal nitrates in the aqueous solution. Equilibrium acid concentration was used as a parameter for the equilibrium curves.

For the system Sc(N03)3- Ca(NO3)2- HNO3- TBP- H20 the distribution coefficients of scandium and calcium decreased with increasing acidity of the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficient of scandium was largely dependent on the calcium concentration in the aqueous phase rather than the scandium concentration as a result of the salting-out effect of calcium nitrate.

The separation factor of scandium with respect to calcium was in the range 11 - 295 depending on the total metal nitrate concentration in the aqueous phase and the acidity of the aqueous phase. It was also observed that the separation factor was not a function of the ratio of scandium to calcium in the aqueous phase.

The solvent TBP was found to be highly selective for scandium than for calcium.