Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Teaching & Learning


The aim of this thesis is to trace the history of education of the Indians living in the Turtle Mountains. The education of these people has passed through several stages of development. The mission, the federal government and the public schools have provided education in varying degrees at different times.

The educational problem of the Turtle Mountains is unique. Indian people live on tax-free land assigned to them by treaty. As a result of these treaties between the Indian tribes and the federal government, most of the community services, including schools, usually provided for by local taxation, have been provided for by the federal government.

The various religious groups have made very important contributions to the education of the many Indian tribes in the United States. Mission schools have provided for the education of a large percentage of Indian pupils. Catholic missionaries were the first to establish schools in the Turtle Mountains, and still continue to play a large part in education on the reservation.

The background of the people, and their present economic condition make education a very important factor in a program of rehabilitation. Welfare office records indicate that the average education of adult Indian people applying for aid is less than a third grade level. The history of education may martially account for this extremely low average education.

It is hoped that the facts assembled will serve two purposes. First, to preserve the accumulated accounts of the development of education in this area, together with factual information on groups and individuals contributing to it. Second, the data should serve as a guide for future planning for education in the area.