Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership


This study examined whether or not the effective schools efforts initiated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs affected student academic achievement in the pilot schools used for the BIA's effective schools improvement efforts. Data were obtained about ten effective schools correlates from ten BIA elementary schools in the BIA's first-year efforts to implement the effective schools improvement process.

An effective schools questionnaire was developed and used to obtain the perceptions of the professional staff regarding the implementation of the effective schools correlates in the ten schools located throughout the United States. Standardized test scores from 1988 and 1992 were collected and compared with the perceptions of staff regarding the impact of the effective schools correlates. Principals completed a form pertaining to the profiles of the school and principal.

The professional staff perceived their school improvement to be greater than the standardized achievement test scores indicated. Principals reported spending some time on the implementation of the correlates.

The analysis showed no significant relationships at grade levels four, five, and six between the correlates implemented and the scores on the reading or language arts standardized achievement tests. There was a significant relationship at the grade four level between six correlates and the mathematics achievement test scores. There was a significant relationship at the grade six level between four correlates and the science achievement test scores. There was a significant relationship at the grade four and the grade six levels between two correlates and the social studies achievement test scores. The staffs perceptions were that student achievement improved significantly from 1988 to 1992, but the actual test scores did not show any significant improvements. The correlates perceived by professional staff as showing improvements and corresponding to raised achievement test scores included safe and orderly environment, instructional leadership, high expectations, opportunity to learn/time on task, monitoring and feedback of student progress, home/school/community relations, participatory management/shared governance, and cultural relevance. The implementation of the effective schools correlates had some effect on standardized achievement tests, especially in the areas of mathematics, social studies, and science.