Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Psychotherapy supervision is an important aspect of clinical training and professional development. Researchers have developed models of psychotherapy supervisor development, and measures for evaluating supervisor competence have also been proposed. Instruments for measuring psychotherapy supervisor self-efficacy, however, have not been developed. This study examined the literature concerning psychotherapy supervision and self-efficacy. Currently, self-efficacy has only been researched regarding counselors and counselors-in-training. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to develop a scale that measures psychotherapy supervisor self-efficacy—the Psychotherapy Supervisor Self-Efficacy Scale (PSS-ES).

Specifically, this study addressed eight research hypotheses. Factor structure and internal consistency of the PSS-ES were evaluated. Group differences in PSS-ES scores regarding age and years of supervisor experience were also examined. Additionally, convergent and divergent validity were assessed through comparisons of PSS-ES scores and scales related to counselor self-efficacy (CSES), supervisory style (SSI), supervisor working alliance (SWAI), and optimism (LOT-R). The results of this study provide evidence that the PSS-ES is a valid and reliable scale measuring one factor— psychotherapy supervisor self-efficacy.