Date of Award

January 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Energy Engineering

First Advisor

Olusegun O. Tomomewo


Fossil fuel energy sources such as coal, oil, and natural gas produce greenhouse gases upon combustion. Over time the greenhouse gases trap heat in the atmosphere and cause global temperatures to continually increase. This continued rise in global temperatures has led to severe climate conditions that have resulted in increasing environmental, financial, social, and medical issues. To mitigate the rise in global temperatures, and the negative effects associated with it, the carbon intensity of our energy sources must be substantially reduced or eliminated where possible. In addition, alternate sources of carbon-free energy sources must be pursued and implemented. Hydrogen is a viable energy carrier for electricity generation and transportation without the emission of greenhouse gases. It occurs in fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, biomass, and in large bodies of water. This research explores the primary methods that are used to produce hydrogen from fossil fuels and biomass using technologies such as steam methane reforming and gasification, and production from water using electrolysis. With carbon capture and storage, hydrogen can be produced semi-sustainably from natural gas and coal with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In the electrolysis process, electricity is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The preferred source of electricity to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases is renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal energy. The research demonstrates the sustainable production of hydrogen and the benefits that it affords. The main benefits are electricity generation, fuel for transportation, and raw materials for several industrial processes. Also, it will facilitate the transition to non-fossil fuel energy technologies and foster our energy security. In addition, it will be instrumental in limiting the global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels in accordance with the 2015 Paris Agreement for net zero emissions by 2050.