Date of Award

January 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Energy Engineering

First Advisor

Tomomewo O. Stanley


Energy storage technologies in its natural form play a key role in the electrical infrastructure, renewable and mobility industry. This form includes the material nomenclature for cell. technology, battery module design, Battery enclosure system design, control, and communication strategy, chemistry profile of various cell technologies, formation and formfactors of cell structure, electrical and mechanical properties of a lithium-ion cell, behavior of the cell under high voltage, low voltage, elevated temperature and lower temperature, multiple charging of a lithium-ion batteries. Energy storage industry is growing rapidly, and the industry is experiencing an unprecedented safety concern and issues in terms of fire and explosion at cell and system level. There has been. other research conducted with proposed theories and recommendations to resolve these issues. The failure modes for energy storage systems can be derived using different methodologies such as failure mode effects analysis (FMEA). Early detection mode and strategies in lithium-ion batteries to overcome the failure modes can be caused by endothermic reaction in the cell, further protection. devices, fire inhibition and ventilation. Endothermic safety involves modifications of materials in anode, cathode, and electrolyte. Chemical components added to the battery electrolyte improve the characteristics helping in the improvement of solid-electrolyte interphase and stability. Traditional energy storage system protection device fuse at the cell level, and contactors at the rack level and circuit breakers, current interrupt devices, and positive temperature coefficient devices at the system level. This research will employ classical experimental methods to explore, review and evaluate all the five main energy technologies and narrow down to electrochemical energy storage technologies. with the two main market ready lithium-ion battery technology (LiFePO4/ G and NMC/G) technology cells and why are they valuable in the energy storage and E-mobility space. Also, will focus on the electrical, mechanical design, testing of the battery module into a rack system, advancements in battery chemistries, relevant modes, mechanisms of potential failures, and early detection strategies to overcome these failures. Finally, how the problems of fires, safety concerns and difficulty in transporting already fully assembled energy storage systems can be resolved and be demystified in lithium-ion technology. Keywords Control strategy, Energy storage system, electrolyte, failure mode, early detection, Lithium-Ion cell technology, Battey system.