Date of Award

January 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Pamela Kalbfleisch


This study used a qualitative narrative approach to investigate the experiences of journalists operating in the context of hybrid warfare across several global regions. The objective of this study is to ascertain the many problems and hazards encountered by numerous journalists who are subjected to pursuit, censorship, harassment, abduction, incarceration, or fatality daily. Furthermore, the objective of this study is to comprehend the ethical and individual incentives that have driven journalists to venture into and remain in regions of violence. Lastly, this study aims to comprehend the utilization of cyber media by journalists in reporting on instances of violence and sad narratives experienced by numerous individuals. This study presents Self-Gatekeeping Theory as a new model that builds upon Gatekeeping Theory to comprehensively analyze the obstacles and complexities associated with the primary theory within the context of the cyber-media era. The present study proposes a novel theoretical framework that is derived from the comprehensive analysis of data gathered in response to research questions one, two, and three. This framework posits that people, in the absence of external influences, possess exclusive agencies in determining the dissemination or withholding of information and news from others. Furthermore, the research employs Fisher's narrative paradigm as the theoretical framework for this study, and a selection of public materials produced by journalists are subjected to analysis.