Date of Award

January 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Energy Engineering

First Advisor

Olusegun S. Tomomewo


The United States’ electric grid is currently undergoing a monumental energy transition involving the incorporation of new fuel sources, generation types, and operational modifications. Since 1920, the U.S. energy collective has been overseen by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), where during this tenure they have pursued the direct regulation of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). This reasoning has been utilized over 300 times in federal cases and proceedings as the adoption rate of DERs has increased, which is based upon the language allowing the federal regulation of electricity based upon the flow of electrons. This is based solely upon the understanding that electrons flow in one direction in an alternating current environment. This problem presents an opportunity to determine electron behavior comparatively in direct and alternating current environments, and thus settling this energy policy debate. The Quantum Movement Theory was established in 2023 to provide definition to quantify electron movement in specific environments. This theory established two equations that define the amount of electrons moved and the magnitude of their distance. The application of the Quantum Movement Theory demonstrates that electrons do not flow but oscillate in an alternating current environment. This outcome accomplishes more than a regulatory disagreement, but rather contributes towards decarbonization, technological innovations, and increased energy security.