Date of Award

January 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Kalbfleisch Pamela


Friendship ranks highly among the social issues that develop and creates a stable andprosperous society. However, people tend to focus more on individuals who share social values while making friends. On the other hand, in a multicultural society, people work, leave, or learn together to share such values. The diversity of the origin of people living in the United States (US), especially in major cities, varies significantly regarding race, ethnicity, and religion, resulting in super-diverse urban setups. This study examined the multicultural friendship between international Arab students studying in the US and their American counterparts. The study was guided by identity management theory. The researcher employed desktop review to achieve research objectives. The researcher searched for stories in journal articles and dissertations published online. The data sources had interview stories on the experiences of Arab students in American universities. In this research study, inductive analysis of the texts was employed. Thematic content analysis was carried out.

Multicultural friendships result in increased linguistic competence and success in life. Language difficulties, inadequate time for socialization, and culture shock characterize the state of multicultural friendships in the US. Multicultural friendship has led to an understanding of other cultures, acceptance of people from diverse cultures, respect for different cultures, and adoption of other cultures. The researcher established that racial discrimination, avoidance, and kindness are thematic areas in the area of multicultural friendship between international Arab students studying in the US and their local counterparts. Multicultural friendship can be encouraged through a few initiatives such as support of teaching staff, participation in group activities, negotiations during multicultural interactions, educational media, and the promotion of multicultural festivals and events in learning institutions. It is recommended that international students in the United States be supported to overcome language and culture shock challenges. Additionally, multicultural friendships should be encouraged to promote the appreciation of people from all cultures. Moreover, racial discrimination should be condemned in the US to enhance multicultural friendships.