Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Teaching & Learning


Most research regarding the workplace and personal life balance has been conducted from the employer (macro level approach) or employee (micro level approach) perspective in a large business context. More recently a call for research using a contextual effects model which examines the interface between the workplace and personal life has been issued. There is also limited research in smaller businesses (fewer than 500 employees), such as those more prevalent in the Midwest. This gap in the research is addressed in the present study.

A sample of 17 businesses from North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Nebraska reflecting the smaller businesses in the Midwest was surveyed. The Work and Family Questionnaire designed by the Families and Work Institute (FWI) was used to collect the employee data. The National Changing Workforce Study Questionnaire was used and completed by 1,329 of the employees in the 17 businesses selected yielding a return rate of 65%.

Correlation and multiple regression analyses indicating significant relationships among the six business organizational characteristics (e.g., percentage of employees that are female, part-time), six employer variables (e.g., flexibility, organizational climate, economic benefits), and 16 employee variables (e.g., stress and health concerns, burnout, job demands, supervisor support, job satisfaction).Discussion of results and implications for educations and researchers are Presented.