Kim Wangen

Date of Award


Document Type

Independent Study

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


The nature of this study was to provide best evidence available for patients, patient's families, and health care providers regarding family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and/or invasive procedures (IPs) in the emergency department of a small, non-teaching hospital that is part of a large medical organization for development and implementation of formal family presence policy guidelines

A comprehensive, computerized, literature search of research-based articles from CJNAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO were reviewed with Kokab's Theory of Comfort providing the theoretical framework as a conceptual basis

Results of best evidence revealed more support for allowing families bedside presence during CPR and/or fPs in the emergency department even though the majority of facilities do not have formal policies in place

Nursing implications include utilizing best evidence and guidelines from the Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) "Presenting the Option for Family Presence" to institute patient/family centered care for creation of formal family presence guidelines, and adding to the growing body of literature for similar institutions to use as a guide for development of their own family presence policy