Huyen Buegel

Date of Award


Document Type

Independent Study

Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients are prone to having many health complications as a consequence of kidney failure. Anemia (low hemoglobin) is one of the most common complications occurring to chronic kidney disease patients. Anemia can cause fatigue, cardiovascular disease, reduced physical capacity and energy level, worsen quality oflife, and even death (Singh, 2008). On the other hand, high Hgb level or over correction of Hgb may be harmful and can lead to arteriovenous access thrombosis, stroke, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk factors (Singh et al., 2007). The effects of Hgb vary and the debate over its optimal level in CKD population has been going on between and within countries. The purpose of this independent study project was to conduct an extensive literature review and to subsequently educate patients and caregivers of an outpatient dialysis center on the effects of Hgb and its optimal level in CKD patients. The goal was to obtain information related to risks and benefits as well as what the therapeutic Hgb range is for patients with CKD, and those receiving hemodialysis. The education session included a submission of the gathered information to the manager and educator of a dialysis unit for review and recommendation. The information was developed into a pamphlet format and used as an educational tool for CKD patients and families. The literature review was well received and reviewed by the dialysis center manager and educator. The content of the literature review was discussed and thought to be well analyzed and informative. The pamphlet was designed with consideration of adult learning characteristic, and contained the information regarding the effects ofHgb levels and its optimal target in CKD. It was recommended to be used as an ongoing educational topic for patients with CKD and their families