Date of Award


Document Type

Independent Study

Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)


The objective of this independent study is to review current evidence-based research to identify optimum vitamin D concentrations and vitamin D supplementation options for health promotion among adults in primary care. Vitamin Dis an essential prohormone necessary for proper bone mineralization, with new research indicating it is also associated with lower risk for many chronic diseases and prevention of infectious processes. Since vitamin D deficiency is widespread across the world, it is important to prevent vitamin D deficiency before the clinical implications are apparent. With optimal vitamin D defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D greater than 75 nanomole per liter, the current daily recommended intake for vitamin D, as established by the United States Food and Nutrition Board is inadequate. Naturally occurring vitamin Dis limited in the food supply, thus it needs to be obtained through fortified foods, oral supplementation, intramuscular injection, or ultraviolent B exposure. Neuman's Health Systems Theory can be used to help primary care providers' work with their patients to come up with the best vitamin D intervention for health promotion and prevention. Currently in the United States fortification is very limited and intramuscular injection is not available. Oral supplementation with 2000 IUs of vitamin 0 3 daily is a safe and effective option in most adult patients. Ultraviolent B radiation is also effective in obtaining therapeutic vitamin D levels, however many variables interfere with cutaneous production of vitamin D and the risks of skin cancer need to be considered. Providers need to implement current review findings immediately and stay current as new research and policy related to vitamin D answer current uncertainties