Date of Award


Document Type

Independent Study

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Pain is an expected reaction from tissue injury in the postoperative setting, yet it is commonly inadequately managed. The literature has exposed some clear-cut guidelines to manage acute pain, and the consequences poorly managed pain. Pain management is expected to be individualized, timely, safe, evidence based and multi modal. An extensive literature review of the cement research of multimodal pain management was conducted. Specifically, the use of opiates along with at least one non-opioid (Tylenol, NSA1Ds, gabapentin and pregabalin). The evidence illustrates the positive effects of multimodal pain management, better pain control and a decrease in the side effects of opioids. At the conclusion of the project, a presentation on the findings and recommendations were shared with the community hospital in order to persuade a positive change toward evidence- based pain management