Date of Award


Document Type

Independent Study

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Despite the known consequences of cigarette smoking, one third of the population of industrialized countries continue to smoke (Rodrigo, 2000). Cigarette smoking alters nonnal physiologic function of the cardiac and respiratory systems and increases risks in the perioperative period for general anesthesia. Systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials have reached the following conclusion: smokers who stop smoking four to eight weeks prior to a scheduled surgery are less likely to develop complications post operatively. Eight weeks of smoking cessation prior to anesthesia is considered to be optimal. Smokers have been noted to possibly need increased analgesia, sedatives, and non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (Webb et al., 2013 ). Patients that present for a scheduled surgical procedure require education on the importance of smoking cessation eight weeks before the procedure in order to achieve and sustain success. The information addressed should include decreased perioperative complications, improved pain control, and wound healing. Verbal education and support have been identified as the preferred teaching methods for patients (Webb et al.). Because CRNAs will continue to encounter patients that smoke, it is important to understand the changes this group of patients goes though