Glen Gruba

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Dr. Paul Wright


In this study correlations were obtained between personality characteristics and menstrual manifestations in order to test the following psychogenic hypotheses regarding the etiology of menstrual symptomatology: (1) dependence, as a personality characteristic, is basic to the elaboration of moderate or severe menstrual symptoms, (2) a psychosomatic process, involving psychic control over somatic functions, underlies certain forms of menstrual symptomatology, and (3) menstrual symptoms, particularly as they are more pronounced, represent exacerbations of prevailing personality patterns.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ, which contains eight menstrual symptom scales) were administered to 60 female university students and the scales were inter- correlated. Where dependence involved seeking security, identity, and self-esteem in a heterosexual relationship, it was associated with beneficent or positive menstrual symptoms. Where dependence involved passive-aggression and the Inability to express anger openly, it was correlated with specific negative menstrual symptoms. Specific areas of possible psychosomatic expression were distinguished from areas of menstrual symptomatology which seemed unaffected by psychosomatic processes. Exacerbatory theory was supported by the appearance of a cyclothymic personality pattern, which appeared to undergo premenstrual and menstrual exacerbation.