Date of Award


Document Type

Independent Study

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


As the world's population ages, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other conditions that cause dementia is expected to increase. Although there is some awareness of the dangers of psychotropic drugs used to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, all too often these agents continue to be used as first-line treatment. Nurses need to be cognizant of safer, efficacious, holistic nonpharmacological approaches and utilize these in an individualized, systematic manner. Two mid-range nursing theories, the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, provide conceptual frameworks for nonpharmacological interventions. This paper examines these models and describes some interventions derived from them. A case study is used as an illustration of the application of the NDB and PLST .