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Mastitis is a complication of breast feeding encountered often by primary care providers. The goal of treating mastitis is not only resolution of the infection, but also the continuation of lactation so that both mother and child may continue to enjoy the innumerable health benefits of breastfeeding. The patient discussed in this case study is a first time mother who is exclusively breastfeeding, but whose planned change in feeding schedules places her at risk for developing mastitis as a result of engorgement or plugged milk ducts. This case report examines current recommendations and evidence for treatment of infectious mastitis. Attention is given to diagnostic criteria, non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic management. Surprisingly, a review of the literature finds provider assessment and support is sometimes limited for breastfeeding mothers facing the challenge of mastitis. Current treatment options are often based on provider preferences as opposed to best practices. Additionally, there is little scientific evidence supporting antibiotic selection resulting in a definite need for further research in this area. These details must be taken into account by the provider to ensure appropriate evidence-based care which is congruent with the needs of the breastfeeding mother.