Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

S. H. Levinsohn


This thesis is based on a collection of narratives told by Gujar women in northern Pakistan. It majors on the structure of subordinate clauses, the discourse functions of relative clauses and conjunctive participial clauses, and the function of the most common connectives: , fir, bas and ǰī.

The position of the relative pronoun indicates whether a relative clause is referring to an activated or a new participant. Relative clauses that appear superfluous indicate that the referent has a significant role to play in the subsequent discourse.

Conjunctive participial clauses may convey information of the same storyline status as the main verb in the sentence.

Sentences are normally joined with a connective. The most common connective, coordinative , joins equal constituents when they convey distinct information. Juxtaposition indicates that adjacent sentences do not convey distinct information. Correlative and contrastive , as spacers, separate constituents of unequal status and indicating their relation to the context. Correlative switches the attention to a new time or participant, and contrastive indicates a proposition counter to expectation.

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