Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Kristine M. Trammell


The Turkmen Mother-Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) Preschool program in Afghanistan provided the ideal environment to research how evidence-based MTB-MLE preschool programs can be implemented in a way that aligns with the cultural and linguistic views of the Turkmen people in Afghanistan such that supervisors, teachers, and the community strive to implement and participate in the program to the fullest extent. Data was triangulated by the use of interviews, participant observation, and MTB-MLE preschool monitoring reports. A qualitative research method was used to gain insights into the perceptions and experiences of supervisors, teachers, and the community on the MTB-MLE program. The data were analyzed using a combined (deductive and inductive) coding approach. The study found that the implementation of an evidence-based MTB-MLE program needs to take into account the existing sociocultural ecosystems at the village, language group, national, and international levels. Additionally, the findings revealed that when the existing culturally-perceived responsibilities of the stakeholders are respected, they are able to participate in the program to the fullest extent. Furthermore, new or prescriptive responsibilities are difficult for the community, teachers, and supervisors to accept. The insights provided demonstrate how evidence-based MTB-MLE principles can be contextualized in preschool programs among the Turkmen people of Afghanistan.