Jessa Hulteng

Date of Award

January 2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Foundations & Research

First Advisor

Virginia Clinton-Lisell


Cultural competence has been identified as one of the methods needed to reduce health disparities for over the last 40 years. Despite being largely accepted method in reducing health disparities, there has been limited progress to increase cultural competence of the healthcare workforce. One of the issues identified that limits progress is inconsistent means of measuring cultural competence. Based on this issue, this study investigated the construct validity of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey – Healthcare Edition (MAKSS-HC) using exploratory factor analysis methodology, specifically Principle Axis Factoring using oblique rotation. Results were interpreted using the Multicultural counseling competence (MCC) model. Further data analysis using the MAKSS-HC and the NSSE: Topical Module of Inclusion and Engagement with Cultural Diversity was completed in order to explore correlations and predictive relationships between levels of cultural competence and institutional support. Results indicated good construct validity and internal reliability of the MAKSS-HC, and also found that coursework and student engagement positively predicted levels of cultural competence.