Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Dr. James Clark


Although the literature on alcoholism is extensive, virtually all of the existing psychological theories of alcoholism are based on research primarily conducted on White males. The question of generalizability of these research findings to females and to other ethnic groups, such as Native Americans, is one of paramount importance. The present study was designed to investigate differences between the sexes and between the White and Native American groups, by analysis of the MMPI profiles of each group.

In addition to investigation of the group differences, this study addressed another major deficiency of the literature. Many psychological assessments, for example the MMPI, are invalid for many ethnic groups, such as Native Americans. Results from this study produced a series of MMPI profiles for alcoholics based upon Native Americans.

The medical records of three hundred and thirty-six patients were obtained from a chemical dependency treatment center at a State Hospital located in the Upper Midwest. Subjects were placed into one of four groups based upon sex and race: White male, White female, Native American male, or Native American female. For each of the four groups, the T scores from the individual MMPI protocols were analyzed through use of the hierarchical classification by generalized distance procedure (Clark, 1986). Data on demographic variables and data on type of discharge, precipitating events, medications used in hospital, termination referrals, religion, number of admissions, community of childhood and culture identity were also obtained. The demographical variables were analyzed to determine statistical significance for each of the four groups.

The results of this study produced nineteen types, each with their own representative profile. Four representative profiles were obtained for each of the groups of Native American females, White females, and White females. The Native American Males, as a group, were represented by seven profiles. Analysis of the demographic variables produced thirteen variables which were significant at the .05 level for one or more of the groups. The significant variables for the Native American female group included years of education, parents' marital status, and residence prior to admission. The White females, as a group, had significant demographic variables for age (years), length of residence in Minnesota, chronological quotient, marital status, religion and residence prior to admission. The significant demographical variables for the White male group were age (years), intelligence quotient, marital status, parents' marital status, religion, occupation, income level and residence prior to admission. The Native American male group had eight significant demographical variables. They were age (years), length of residence in Minnesota, marital status, parents' marital status, income level, referral source, residence prior to admittance and followup referral.