Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Education (MSEd)


Education, Health & Behavior Studies

First Advisor

Elwyn B. Robinson

Second Advisor

Gordon W Hewes

Third Advisor

Erich Selke


It is the purpose of this thesis to prepare the way for further study and consideration of the Indian problem as presented on Standing Rock Indian Reservation. The material is largely from original sources gathered through years of work among the Indians and whites who remember the period 1874 - 1890. This paper was limited to those years because they mark an epoch in the relations of these people with our own. It begins with the drifting of the discontented Indians of the newly created reservation to and from the camp of Sitting Bull and it ends with the death of this great patriot and leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux.

Documentation is therefore confined almost entirely to reports of the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs from 1874 to 1891, to copies of the original letters of United States Indian agents at Standing Rock during this period, and to works of such men as Major ‘McLaughlin and Stanley Vestal who drew their material from the same sources that I found to be the most authentic available, the people with whom I-have lived and associated with so intimately.

It is to such notables as Chief White Bull, Chief One Bull, Dog Eagle, Kills Pretty Enemy, Male Bear, Little Moon, Jim All Yellow, Has Holy, Two Bulls, and Swift Hawk among the older Indians, Robert Higheagle, Cecelia One Bull Brown, Pius Bigshield, Mrs. Frances Long Chase, and Abraham Buckley of the second generation, Frank Whitebuffaloman, Francis Zahn, Wallace Eagle Shield, and Jesse Taken Alive of the younger generation of Indians that I owe much of my material on the Indians of the older days.

To Ott Black, Charlie Armstrong, Jacob Horner, Col. Mathew F. Steele, Frank B. Fiske, and William Mcflider I am indebted for their stories of life among the Indians during the period with which we are concerned. My first-hand sources, verbal and written, contain both the Indian and the white viewpoint. The material will be presented as given without any attempt to distort or color to obtain the viewpoint of the author.