Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Educational Foundations & Research


The study consisted of a comparison of two methods of teaching the elementary backstroke to beginning swimmers. Students of the University of North Dakota "Upward Bound" project volunteered as experimental subjects. The instructor pre-tested the students to see that those participating fell in the beginning swimming classification. The students were taken through the beginning swimming progressions as outlined by the American Red Cross. After they had progressed sufficiently in basic swimming skills, the subjects were arbitrarily placed into two experimental groups.

One group was taught to swim the elementary backstroke using the whole method of instruction, and the other was taught the same stroke using the part method. Each subject attended ten instructional sessions during the experimental program. At the end of this experimental period the subjects were rated by a committee of four judges as to the performance of the prescribed stroke. These experts used a prepared check list in making their evaluations.


1. In this study the "whole method" (experimental group II) proved to be better than the "part method" in teaching the elementary backstroke.

2. In this study the "whole method" group was ranked one, three and four out of the seven who were post-tested.