Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Teaching & Learning
In this study, the Expectancy Theory of Motivation was applied to the updating behavior of experienced elementary teachers in North Dakota. The purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions of experienced elementary teachers at certain career levels, ages, experience levels, grade levels, and district sizes regarding the relationships between participating in various professional development activities and remaining professionally up-to-date (expectancy beliefs) as well as attaining desired outcomes and rewards (instrumentality and valence beliefs). A secondary purpose of the study was to investigate the applicability of the expectancy model for predicting past and future participation in updating activities by teachers in the sample.
This study included a sample of full-time kindergarten through sixth-grade classroom teachers in North Dakota who had at least three years of experience. Data were collected by requesting principals of randomly selected elementary schools in North Dakota to request teachers with the required characteristics to complete the survey instruments. The survey instruments included the Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy (VIE) Survey, developed for this study, and the Career Awareness Index (CAI), developed by Donald DeMoulin. A total of 243 usable surveys were collected. The data were analyzed using t tests, analysis of variance, Pearson Correlation Coefficients, and Scheffd Multiple Contrast.
Teachers in this study preferred university coursework, workshops, and conferences for updating activities although there were significant differences according to age, experience, grade level, and career level. Teachers in this study preferred intrinsic, especially psychic rewards, to extrinsic rewards although there were significant differences according to age, experience, grade level, and career level. Older teachers, more experienced teachers, teachers at upper elementary grade levels, and teachers in career levels of low productivity generally were less motivated to participate in updating activities. The study demonstrated that the expectancy model as a whole formula as well as its components are predictive of past and future participation in updating activities. The findings from this study will help persons and agencies responsible for the professional development of teachers to assist and motivate teachers to update their professional skills and knowledge.
Johnson, Paul Kasper, "Factors that Influence the Professional Updating of Teachers" (1994). Theses and Dissertations. 3743.