Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology & Public Health Education


Problem: This study was concerned with effectiveness of a commercially produced hand-paddle as a teaching/learning aid for learning the arm action of the front crawl swimming stroke.

Procedure: The population was restricted to two classes from the general program at the Advanced Swimmer Level of the Health, Physical Education and Recreation Department of the University of North Dakota. The two samples were randomly divided into experimental and traditional groups. Data were collected by means of a subjective rating instrument designed by the researcher. Students were rated on a pre-test and post-test after eight hours of instruction.

Statistically, the data were treated by using t tests for comparisons both within groups and between groups. An ,05 alpha level of significance was selected a priori for the determination of significance in the analyses.

Conclusions: 1. The use of the hand-paddles did not result in significantly better performance of the arm stroke in the front crawl than that obtained by subjects using no mechanical aids,

2, The traditional group in Sample Two did not improve significantly and all other groups did during the experimentation period.

Recommendations: 1. It is recommended, as a result of improvements found in the data obtained from the Experimental Groups, that a long-range study of the effects of hand-paddles be undertaken,

2. As a result of the significant level of improvement made by the Experimental Groups, it is recommended that coaches and teachers be prepared to use the hand-paddles with some of their students.

3. It is further recommended that tests based on strength, power, endurance, and speed be carried out using the hand-paddles as aids in developing these aspects of various swimming strokes,

4. Since there is now more than one type of hand-paddle available, it is recommended that studies comparing the various types of paddles be initiated,

5. The most important recommendation made by this researcher is that more experimentation be carried out in regard to mechanical learning aids for the recreational swimmer. This could be done at the beginning, intermediate and advanced levels and also over a longer period of instruction.