Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Teaching & Learning
Problem: This study investigated selected aspects of self concept in elementary school students and their teachers as measured by self report instruments in an initial and retesting situation. Attention was given to determining whether changes in the children's levels of self concept had taken place during the school year, whether differences in self concept were evidenced xvdien compared by sex and grade level, and whether a relationship existed between the self concept of the students and the self concept of their teachers.
Procedure: The research was conducted in two Grand Forks Public Schools during the 1971-72 school year, and the sample investigated included students in grades three through eight, attending their respective school for the entire year and completing all of the pre and posttests and the teachers assigned to these students.
The following three hypotheses were proposed and tested:
1. The children's levels of self concept will not change significantly during the school year.
2. The children's levels of self concept xdLll not be significantly different Xtfhen compared by sex, across elementary school grade level, and on the interaction of these txro variables.
3. No significant relationship will exist between the levels of self concept of the students and the levels of self concept of their teachers.
The subjects included in the analysis of data consisted of 528 elementary school students and their 32 teachers.
Self concept and attitude toward school in grades three, four and five were measured on a pre and post basis by the primary form of the Self Appraisal Inventory (SAI), the primary form of the School Sentiment Index (SSI), and the Class Play (TCP). Self concept and attitude toward school in grades six, seven and eight were measured on the same basis using the intermediate forms of the SAI, the intermediate form of the SSI, and What Would You Do? (WWYD). These self report instruments were developed and distributed by the Instructional Objectives Exchange (IOX).
Teacher self concept was measured on a pre and post basis by the Index of Adjustment and Values (IAV). This instrument yields three possible indices of self concept. The first is an index of self in general, the second an index of self-acceptance, and the third, which is computed by subtracting the first index from an ideal self score, is described as the self-ideal self discrepancy index. The third index was used in this study.
The statistical procedures used included the related t test, two way analysis of variance of retest scores and a two way analysis of variance of residual gain scores. The .05 and .01 significant levels were used in the interpretation and evaluation of the findings.
Conclusions: In summary, the following major conclusions emerged from this investigation:
1. A general pattern of attrition of self concept and attitude toward school seemed to be in evidence when the initial and retest scores were investigated independently within individual grade levels at third and fifth grade. The greatest number of significant negative changes was evidenced by girls and all students.
2. No clear cut pattern of growth or attrition could be discerned between grades in the primary group. While significant growth was evidenced in several of the dimensions, significant attrition was evidenced in others.
3. While no significant differences between grades were noted in the intermediate self concept instrumentation, two significant decreases were noted in school sentiment.
4. The girls’ levels of self concept and attitude toward school were higher than those of the boys in most of the nonsignificant and all of the significant dimensions of this investigation.
5. The self concept of primary students was significantly related to the self concept of their teachers in the primary group. Students who had spent the year with teachers who reported higher levels of self concept evidenced significantly higher residual gain scores than did students who were assigned to teachers wo reported medium or lower levels of self concept.
Edeburn, Carl E., "An Analysis of Self Concept in Two Elementary Schools in Relationship to Sex, Grade Level, and Teacher" (1973). Theses and Dissertations. 3593.