Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Teaching & Learning


Purpose of this Study: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if a change would occur in students self image as a result of being involved in the Free Reading Program (FRP).

The Free Reading Program (FRP) was a design focusing on a personalized curriculum which offered students a free choice of materials. Substitution of the reading program for all social studies requirements was the incentive. Recognized educational principles were used in this program with the object of creating an atmosphere of relevancy for the student. Paramount consideration was given to the changes that occurred in student behavior, particularly the self image of those students involved in the reading program.

The general hypothesis generated for this study, stated in the null, was: There will be no significant change in students' self image based on the results of the pretest and posttest scores of the twelve scales of the Class I and Class II measures of the California Psychological Inventorv (CPI). Other heuristic data were sought to further help explain changes that were found. Such data were collected by use of an opinion aire, the students' permanent records, administration and staff reactions, student conferences, and a questionnaire.

The population for this study consisted of 48 eleventh grade social studies students at the Grand Forks, Forth Dakota, Central High School who were enrolled in the Core B program. Core students are defined as vocationally oriented, often with low academic motivation, and potentially dropouts.

Procedure: An opinionnaire was administered to the 48 students to obtain volunteers for the FRP. Seventeen students volunteered for the program; 31 students did not volunteer. The CPI was administered to the 48 students and served as a pretest instrument. The non-volunteer group continued with their regular class assignments. The volunteer group selected a predetermined number of books, participated in large group, small group, and individual conferences, concluding with a student-teacher conference. The volunteers were asked to complete a short questionnaire at the conclusion of the FRP. The 48 students completed che opinionnaire and the CPI a second time. The results cf the second administration o£ the CPI served as a posttest instrument. A second criterion of participant, non-participant was also used, whicl divided the population into two groups: Group 1, students who did not volunteer for the FRP and also those who did not successfully complete the. FRP; Group 2, students who successfully completed the FRP. Statistical procedures included in this sir' were a t-test, an analysis of variance, and an analysis of covariance.

Conclusions: The analysis of the data yielded the following results;

1. Overall, there was no significant change in students' self image as the result of being involved in the FRP.

2. There was a significant statistical difference in self Image change between the volunteer group and non-volunteer group on only one scale of the CPI—socialization (So).

3. Significant statistical differences did exist between the volunteer and non-volunteer groups on the CPI scales of dominance (Do), capacity for status (Cs), sociability (Sy), self-acceptance (Sa) , and socialization (So).

4. There was a significant statistical difference in self image change between the participant and non-participant groups on only two scales of the CPI—capacity for status (Cs) and socialization (So).

5. Significant statistical difference did exist between the participant and non-participant groups on the CPI scales of dominance (Do), capacity for status (Cs), and good impression (Gi).

Heuristic data did reveal that as the FRP progressed, a positive change did take place in the students' attitude towards one another. They became more concerned for one another, more interested in their future, and more involved in the reading. A growth in respect seemed to parallel the program. Viewing the students in the FRP from the vantage point gained by the collection of heuristic data, the researcher concluded that the FRP is a vehicle that allows to develop self confidence, self respect, and as a result, ment in self image.