Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Teaching & Learning


The purpose of this study was to assess whether a relationship existed between certain resource characteristics and designated outcomes within Upward Bound programs whose student enrollments were predominately American Indian. Positive outcomes included achievement test gains in both comprehension and reading, high school retention, the number of high school graduates, and enrollment in post-secondary education. Ten Upward Bound projects from an eight-state area were involved in the study.

Data were collected from directors and staff using a questionnaire, the Bogardus Social Distance Scale, and Hersey and Blanchard's LEAD Self and LEAD Other.

Factor analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient were used. Results showed that certain resource characteristics related to stated outcomes.

In the areas of achievement test gains in comprehension and reading and in post-secondary enrollment, the variance was limited. Native American counselors did relate significantly to achievement test gains in reading and in the number of high school graduates.

Major findings were that Native American directors; higher paid directors; additional enrichment programs; older, more established Upward Bound projects all related to increased high school retention and larger numbers of high school graduates. Other variables related to either high school retention or high school graduation.

Attitude of the staff toward minorities, amount of money spent on supplies and equipment, and advanced educational levels of summer instructors all related to high school retention. The more summer instructors in math, science, social studies, and English, the better the high school graduation rate.

Leadership qualities related to high school graduation only. These included the director's perception of the co-director's leadership effectiveness, the director's perception of the co-director's leadership style of low task and high relationship, and the staff's perception of the director's leadership style of high task and high relationship.