Date of Award

January 2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Kathryn Yurkonis


Invertebrate pollinator populations are widely recognized as declining because of anthropogenic activities that include changes in the amount and quality of available habitat, competition with introduced species, increased agricultural chemical use, and climate change. Because habitat and resource availability affect pollinator populations, land management may affect pollinator presence. My first aim was to determine if pollinator communities and habitat characteristics (available bare ground and floral resources) differed between grazed and idle grasslands within the Grand Forks County Grasslands of northeastern North Dakota, USA. Although available bare ground and plant species richness differed between grassland types, floral resources and pollinator communities did not differ between grassland types. My second aim was to determine how the spatial relationships among the plants within a site, in my case for a common prairie forb, affect pollinator visitation and pollinator services. The number of visiting invertebrates increased with plant diversity and visiting invertebrates were more diverse at greater Ratibida columnifera densities. Dipterans were by far the most abundant invertebrate visitors and they showed mixed responses to local plant characteristics. This research adds to our understanding of northern grassland pollinator communities and offers insight on how to restore grasslands to maximize pollinator services.