Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

W.M. Laird


South-central Kidder County is covered with deposits of drift brought by ice sheets which invaded the areas from the northeast and east. Bedrock of Cretaceous age underlies the drift mantle. The drift on the surface in Kidder County represents the Cary and Mankato substages of the Wisconsin Stage of Pleistocene series.

Three types of moraines, ground, stagnation, and end moraine, are present in the area. Five late Wisconsin and moraines are distinguished and named in this portion of Kidder County. These are, from west to east and oldest to youngest, the Long Lake loop and Sibley Buttes loop of Cary subage and the Western Crystal Springs loop, McPhail Buttes loop and its southern extension the Eastern Crystal Springs loop, the Lake George loop of Mankato subage. It was impossible to distinguish between and moraines by color, composition and pebble counts since tills of these moraines were similar in composition.

Outwash deposits are generally present along the distal margin of end moraines; either ground or stagnation moraine is generally present central part of the area. This originated from coalescing meltwater channels off the end moraines to the north east. Numerous ice-contact features are present in the area. Kumes are more numerous than eskera Steels, North Dakota, is situated on a glacial lake bottom.

Barrett (229443 kB)

Included in

Geology Commons