Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




The metabolic syndrome (MS) has been linked to a significantly higher risk of heart disease and diabetes. It affects approximately 25% of Americans today with its prevalence continuing to increase as the population becomes heavier and more sedentary. With Pender’s Health Promotion model as a theoretical base, this study examined the prevalence of the risk factors, preventative and treatment measures for the metabolic syndrome among a Midwestern North American population. A non-experimental secondary data analysis comparative survey design approach was used through a chart review of 101 male patient charts and 101 female patient charts. Significance was established at p< .05.

Looking at the first of these risk factors it was found that 118, or 58.4% of the sample, had a diagnosis of hypertension while 33.7% (n=68) had a blood pressure reading over 130/85 mmHg. Of the 173 in the sample who had random glucose readings in their chart 16, six females and 10 males, had levels over 200 mg/dL. There were 78, 43 males and 35 females, or 38.6% of the sample, who had diabetes. Altogether 88 men and 88 women had a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m2 with the mean BMI of the sample being 38.1 kg/m2 (SD=7.6). Over half, 50.9%, of the sample with triglyceride readings had a level over 150 mg/dL. The mean triglyceride level was 206.4 mg/dL (SD=136.3). There were 12 females, out of a total of 21 with an high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level recorded, with an HDL level under 40 mg/dL and 32 males, out of 35 with an HDL level recorded, with a level under 50 mg/dL. The mean HDL level was 33.9 mg/dL (SD=12.3). Of the prevention and treatment measures studied several, such as the referrals for eye exams and to a dietician, were rarely found. Of those seen more often, the referrals for or foot examinations completed were seen in 55 charts, for 30 male and 25 females. Of those with diabetes 34.6% had a foot examination or referral made. Of the medications or type of medication on which information was collected four, aspirin, diuretics, and statins, were used by approximately one third of patients. Angiotensin converting enzymes inhibitors were being taken by just under a fifth of the patients. There were 130, 67 males and 63 females, in the sample who had a record of an electrocardiogram completed.

As this study was retrospective using a chart review process, certain patients were not found to have all of the risk factors for the MS documented. Repeating the study with patients who had a record of each of these five risk factors would be beneficial as well as focusing more on the exact time when they were found to have these risk factors and what kinds of treatments were implemented. With the growing numbers of clients with the MS it is crucial that nurses be informed on current information on the MS so that they can be a resource to patients and other health care providers.