Date of Award

January 2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Arts (DA)



First Advisor

Pamela Kalbfleisch


Advertising has been one of the most effective elements of marketing communication used to persuade audiences to behave in a certain way. Many studies have examined factors that affect ads positively. Increasing loyalty was classified as the primary goal of companies. Thus, advertisements were commonly used to achieve this goal. On the other hand, even though many studies discussed advertising elements that might generate negative impacts, the possible results of these ads were not sufficiently addressed. Through the theory of planned behavior, this study aimed to explore the role of the cultural value as an element impacting loyalty negatively by a survey that measures people's attitudes toward anti-culture ads. The research was conducted in Saudi Arabia as some studies have shown a high interest in cultural values compared to peoples of some Arab countries. Participants from all groups reported a significant negative impact of such advertisements on loyalty.