Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

W.M. Laird


Lake County is in the extreme northwestern corner of Indiana. The county is divided into three physiographic units: (1) Calumet lake plain, (2) Valparaiso moraine, (3) Kankakee glacioflucial plain.

The Calumet lake plain was covered by glacial Lake Chicago. Beach lines show the areal extent of the various phase of the lake’s history. The Valparaiso moraine, a broad upland, trends east-west across the county. An end moraine on the north side of this upland is correlated with the Tinley moraine in Illinois. The Kankakee glaciofluvial plain, formerly marshland, slopes gently from the Valparaiso moraine to the Kankakee River.

The bedrock surface has a general slope toward the basin of Lake Michigan. Five former stream valleys enter the basin from the preglacial drainage divide in Illinois.

Till averaging about 50 feet in thickness, probably of Illinoian (7) age, lies above the bedrock surface. A sheetlike deposit of sand and gravel lies beneath the drift of the Valparaiso moraine and crops out on that surface of the Kankakee glaciofluvial plain. Presumably, the sand and gravel was laid down during the retreat of the ice sheet that deposited the Illinoian (7) till. Two distinct tills were deposited upon this sand and gravel. The lower is a gray-blue clayey till, which is overlain by the upper buff to yellow, silty, clay till of the Valparaiso moraine.

Lake Michigan provides water for the northern third of the county and ground water is the source of supply for the rest of the county.

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