Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Subjects completed a series of questionnaires as a means to obtain symptoms experienced across three phases of the cycle (menstrual, premenstrual, and intermenstrual). The questionnaires completed included the Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Moos' Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, the Depression Adjective Check List (Forms A and D), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Forms Y-1 and Y-2), and Index Cards for two consecutive months. There were nintey-nine (99) subjects: forty-seven (47) Caucasian American adolescents and fifty-two (52) Chippewa Native American adolescents. Two subjects were dropped from this study, one from each group, due to the exclusion criteria established prior to data collection, leaving forty-six (46) and fifty-one (51) subjects per group respectively. Comparisons of the self-reported anxiety, depression, menstrual symptoms, and demographics between the two groups were conducted to determine if differences existed between the two groups. More specifically, comparisons were made to determine if differences during premenstrual phase per se or any other symptoms reported existed between the two groups of adolescents studied. Analyses compared the two groups in terms of demographic data differences and/or symptom differences. It was hypothesized that no differences would exist in terms of types and severity of symptoms as a function of the phase of cycle for the two groups studied.

Results indicated that, in general, the Chippewa Native American group reported more anxiety, depression, water retention, negative affect, autonomic reaction, control, and behavioral change symptoms with the majority of the symptoms occurring in the intermenstrua1 phase of the cycle. In terms of demographic data, the Chippewa Native American group was significantly younger, regulated menstrual cycles at a younger age, and were more likely to use condoms as a contraceptive method. The Caucasian American group was more likely to medi&te symptoms via non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs such as Advil, were more educated about the menstrual cycle via films, more likely to utilize a health professional as a source of information, and had longer cycles than the Chippewa Native American group. Differences between the two groups were also found for selfreported anxiety and depression, with both types of symptoms occurring primarily in the menstrual phase of the cycle. Exploratory regression analyses suggest some significant predictors of symptoms as well. The data overall suggest differences between the two groups in regard to menstrual cycle symptoms. However, the lack of consistency of the same symptoms to be existent across at least two cycles did not appear to meet criteria for PMS.