Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Teaching & Learning

First Advisor

Dr. John Delane Williams


Long term care facilities in North Dakota and across the nation are experiencing a shortage of Registered Nurses (RNs), Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs), and Certified Nurse Assistants (CNAs). This shortage is significant as it directly affects the quality of care provided to long term care residents. As long term care is labor intensive, recruitment and retention efforts are critical to these facilities. In a highly competitive labor market, although recruitment is important, retention of current employees is crucial. An integration retention strategy is necessary for the retention of employees. Numerous studies have suggested that job satisfaction is directly related to retention.

The identification of indicators of job satisfaction has been the focus of many studies. Some research has focused on job satisfaction oflong term care givers but several limitations of these studies stand out. First, these studies have focused on either RNs, LPNs, or CNAs. None have examined the differences between the groups. Second, it is difficult to replicate or generalize findings as regulations, reimbursement, socioeconomic, cultural differences, and demographics greatly vary across the nation and even state to state.

This study was a secondary analysis of data collected by the North Dakota Long Term Care Association and the North Dakota Department of Health and Human Services and involved 2,577 long term care givers throughout the state of North Dakota. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators of job satisfaction, identification of indicators that were different among the three groups of care givers, and identify the significance of those differences. A previously developed and tested questionnaire was used to measure job satisfaction. Factor analysis was performed. Subsequently, reliability analysis was performed on the identified factors. One-way ANOV A was performed on the summated means of each factor to identify differences among the three groups. One-way ANOV A was also performed on the individual items to identify differences in the individual items.

Findings indicated that differences exist in indicators of job satisfaction among the RN s, LPNs, and CNAs and some of these differences are significant. These indicators and their significance are discussed.

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