Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Foundations & Research



The purpose of this research was to analyze the preparation and certification of industrial arts teachers in Canada and to devise a recommended program for industrial arts teacher education for Manitoba. A solution to this problem was sought through an examination of the problems of teacher preparation in Canada, certification practices, and industrial arts teacher preparation programs and recommendations in line with the best practices available were made.


Data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed from various sources, including teachers, teacher-educators, and department of education officials throughout Canada by means of correspondence, consultation, and the review of pertinent documents. The teacher preparation systems of the provinces of Manitoba and Alberta were selected for more detailed study on the availability of information and because they afforded typical examples of the two major approaches to industrial teacher education. Information was also obtained from teachers in the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba as well as teacher-educators and other officials by means of an opinionnaire. A one-way analysis of variance and the Dunn's "c" test were used in making a comparison between the groups reporting.

Results and Conclusions

This research was intended to provide descriptive data of existing conditions in the preparation and certification of industrial arts teachers in Canada with the assumption that the information obtained would facilitate further research.

Some of the more significant results of this research lie in the thinking and practices of those engaged in teacher education. For example, the findings of the study indicated that almost general agree ment existed among the three major groups involved in teacher educa tion, i.e . teacher-educators, teachers, and department of education officials, on the need for a basic four-year program of teacher education for both academic and industrial arts teachers.

An analysis of the data further revealed that there was a great deal of similarity in all the pre-service programs conducted by provincial universities for teachers, apart, that is, from the area of specialty. Approximately one third of the total time allotment of these university- centered programs was required for general education studies for teachers of general academic subjects and industrial arts alike.

In the available data related to department of education teacher- preparation courses it was noted that professional studies and skill training absorbed the majority of the required teacher preparation period. However, the value of many department of education courses is recog nized throughout Canada, and, accordingly, most universities allow them partial credit towards a degree standing.

The certification of teachers in Canada remains solely a preroga tive of the respective provincial governments. This provision has remained relatively unchanged since the passing of the British North American Act of 1867. However, there is a pronounced trend in Canada to place all forms of teacher education in the hands of the provincial universities and other indications of consultation and cooperation between governmental officials, trustees' organizations and members of the teaching profession in respect to certification and preparation.

Other conclusions drawn from this study were that the requirements for teacher certification in the various provinces of Canada present a somewhat confused and conflicting picture as each province appears to have different entrance requirements, periods of preparation, and certi ficate nomenclature.

A four-year teacher preparation curriculum was recommended for industrial arts teachers in Manitoba based upon a comparison of exist ing programs in Canada with those suggested by leading educators in the area of industrial arts. Of all the industrial arts programs analyzed in this study, that of the province of Alberta appeared more nearly to meet the general education, the professional, and the concentration requirements of a well-balanced teacher education program.