Date of Award

January 2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology & Public Health Education

First Advisor

Sandra Short


This thesis examined the interaction between the time of imagery use and performance and self-efficacy in college baseball players during a hitting task. Participants (n=24) were randomly assigned to one of 3 conditions: (a) before practice imagery group, (b) during practice imagery group, (c) after practice imagery group. A 3 (imagery group) × 2 (pretest and posttest) repeated measures ANOVA with performance and self-efficacy as the dependent variables was used. Results for performance main effects and interactions were not significant (p > .05); means were lower during posttest than pretest but weren’t considered significant changes. For self-efficacy, there was a significant time by imagery group interaction (F (2, 21) = 4.67, p < .05). Although imagery has been known to have significant effects on performance and other variables, these findings suggest that imagery had a stronger psychological effect than physical effect in this study.