Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Electrical Engineering

First Advisor

Sima Noghanian


Recently, fabrication of miniature electronic devices that can be used for wireless connectivity becomes of great interest in many applications. This has resulted in many small and compact wireless devices that are either implantable or wearable. As these devices are small, the space for the antenna is limited. An antenna is the part of the wireless device that receives and transmits a wireless signal. Implantable and wearable antennas are very susceptible to harmful performance degradation caused by the human body and very difficult to integrate, if not designed properly. A designer need to minimize unwanted radiation absorption by the human body to avoid potential health issues. Moreover, a wearable antenna will be inevitably exposed to user movements and has to deal with influences such as crumpling and bending. These deformations can cause degraded performance or a shifted frequency response, which might render the antenna less effective. The existing wearable and implantable antennas’ topologies and designs under discussion still suffer from many challenges such as unstable antenna behavior, low bandwidth, considerable power generation, less biocompatibility, and comparatively bigger size. The work presented in this thesis focused on two main aspects. Part one of the work presents the design, realization, and performance evaluation of two wearable antennas based on flexible and textile materials. In order to achieve high body-antenna isolation, hence, minimal coupling between human body and antenna and to achieve performance enhancement artificial magnetic conductor is integrated with the antenna. The proposed wearable antennas feature a small footprint and low profile characteristics and achieved a wider -10 dB input impedance bandwidth compared to wearable antennas reported in literature. In addition, using new materials in wearable antenna design such as flexible magneto-dielectric and dielectric/magnetic layered substrates is investigated. Effectiveness of using such materials revealed to achieve further improvements in antenna radiation characteristics and bandwidth and to stabilize antenna performance under bending and on body conditions compared to artificial magnetic conductor based antenna. The design of a wideband biocompatible implantable antenna is presented. The antenna features small size (i.e., the antenna size in planar form is 2.52 mm3), wide -10 dB input impedance bandwidth of 7.31 GHz, and low coupling to human tissues.

In part two, an overview of investigations done for two wireless body area network applications is presented. The applications are: (a) respiratory rate measurement using ultra-wide band radar system and (b) an accurate phase-based localization method of radio frequency identification tag. The ultimate goal is to study how the antenna design can affect the overall system performance and define its limitations and capabilities. In the first studied application, results indicate that the proposed sensing system is less affected and shows less error when an antenna with directive radiation pattern, low cross-polarization, and stable phase center is used. In the second studied application, results indicate that effects of mutual coupling between the array elements on the phase values are negligible. Thus, the phase of the reflected waves from the tag is mainly determined by the distance between the tag and each antenna element, and is not affected by the induced currents on the other elements.