Ademola Amida

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

David Yearwood


Electronic laboratory activities offer opportunities to help students learn about concepts and develop practical competencies in electronic circuit systems. Evidence in the literature suggests that the effectiveness of laboratory activities might be affected by the type of instructions provided (explicit or implicit), and the lab environment (physical or virtual) in which the activities were performed.

This study investigated the effect of different written task instructions (explicit versus implicit) and lab environment (physical versus virtual) on students’ scores in an electronic circuit task. This study was a quantitative experiment that used a repeated measure factorial design to determine how the written instructions used in different environments affected students’ scores.

Study results showed that there was no statistical significant difference in scores when students were presented with implicitly or explicitly written instructions. Similarly, results indicated no significant difference in scores when students used either physical or virtual environments. However, the computed effect size revealed that virtual environments might have a slightly higher effect on students’ scores. These results suggest that the type of written instructions presented and the lab environment used may not have significantly affected students’ scores.