Date of Award

January 2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology & Public Health Education

First Advisor

John Fitzgerald


The purpose of this study was to observe possible changes in ROM of the shoulder and the hip after an off-season resistance training program and practice. The participants engaged in their normal off-season fall ball practice and off-season training regimen. Participants (N=20) were recruited from The University of North Dakota Baseball team. Before the athletes began their off-season training, a pre-test measurement was taken on shoulder Internal Rotation (IR), External Rotation (ER), Horizontal Adduction (HAdd), and hip and knee flexion. Resistance training took place three days a week for twelve weeks, and fall ball practice was four days a week for four weeks within the twelve week period. Following the twelve week off-season post-test measurements were taken to assess any changes. The results indicated that there was no statistical difference in shoulder IR (-.749, p = .463), ER (.067, p = .947), HAdd (1.14, p= .267), and knee flexion (right leg, t(.903, p= .378, and left leg, t(1.07, p= .300). There was a negative statistical difference in hip flexion (right, 5.96, p= .000, and left, 4.91, p= .000). There was also a positive statistical difference between pre- and post-max lifts in the back squat (-6.01, p= .000), deadlift (-7.26, p= .000), and the power clean (-9.37, p= .000). There was, however, no correlation between the strength increases and hip flexion ROM decreases. An off-season strength program does not affect the shoulder, probably due to a decrease in throwing volume. The hip is affected, and flexibility training should be addressed prior to in-season play.