Date of Award

January 2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Brenda Kallio


Human resources are the most important part of any organization. If the organization is to perform at its best, development and motivation of the employees are essential.

The research in this study examined the application of the Expectancy Theory and how it can be used to obtain a better understanding of teachers' perceptions about motivation and compensation. There were 198 teachers invited to complete the survey, representing the elementary, middle-school, and high-school levels. Of the 198 teachers invited, 131 teachers began the survey, and frequency numbers varied by question. In the end, 118 teachers completed the entire survey and categorical data from the responses were presented in frequency and percentage form.

Demographic data were collected and analyzed. Teachers' responses to questions determined if there were relationships between the multiple components of the Expectancy Theory. ANOVA data were presented to identify relationships and correlations among the Expectancy Theory components and demographic information. These relationships help understand teachers' perspectives about effort (hard work), instrumentality (the belief that performance will lead to a reward), valence (the value of the reward), and motivational force.

The information obtained in this study provides school administrators, school boards, and policy makers with information that could lead to changes in teacher compensation and motivation. The research may encourage stakeholders to conduct a comprehensive review of their evaluation and compensation practices as a means to increase teacher motivation. School leaders can use the information to design plans that address the challenges of recruiting, motivating, and retaining highly qualified teachers.